Cohort Descriptives

Variable Response
Cohort name The Airwave Health Monitoring Study
Cohort acronym Airwave
General Study Overview The Airwave Health Monitoring Study was established to evaluate possible health risks associated with the use of TETRA, a digital communication system used by the police forces and other emergency services in Great Britain since 2001. It is a long-term observational study following up the health of the police force with respect to TETRA exposure, and ability to monitor both cancer and non-cancer health outcomes.
Number of subjects at baseline 55,000
Institution name Imperial College London
Department name Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics School of Public Health
City London
Study or database website

http://www.police-health.org.uk/

Principal Investigator (PI): Name Prof Paul Elliott
PI: Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics School of Public Health, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG
PI: email

p.elliott@imperial.ac.uk

PI: phone +44 (0)20 7594 3328
Administrative Contact (AC): Name Jennifer Wells
AC: Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics School of Public Health, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG
AC: email J.a.wells@imperial.ac.uk
AC: phone +44 (0)20 7594 3328
Technical Contact/Data manager (TC): Name Andy Heard
TC: Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics School of Public Health, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG
TC: email

a.heard@imperial.ac.uk

TC: phone +44 (0)20 7594 3842
Key study references

Open literature list

Population based study? Yes
Family based study? No
Clinical based sample? No
Is there follow-up data available? Yes
Were participants included prior to development of dementia (may refer to controls only)? Yes
Were participants included prior to development of MCI (may refer to controls only)? Yes
How is data collected? Combination: In the first phase, every employee receives the enrolment (paper) questionnaire via routine administration or the occupational health service. This questionnaire is scanned and data received at Imperial College.
Who carries out data collection? Interviewers
Clinical staff: Nursing staff were involved although the questionnaires were carried out themselves.
Does this take place in participants' homes or at a central location? Home
Central: Paper questionnaires were sent out by each force to the home or office of employees and clinics were performed regionally.
Do participants take part individually or are families/partners involved? Individually
Dementia cases ascertained as part of study: No
Diagnosis based on review of existing clinical data No
Was diagnosis/primary outcomes made blind to exposure variables? No
How many times followed up? 2
Study start date 2004-01-01
Is study ongoing? Yes
Is study still recruiting? No
Inclusion criteria People employed in the police force across the UK.
Exclusion criteria Unable to consent.

Demographic and Clinical Information

Variable Response
Demographics
Age Yes
Age at last follow-up Yes
Age at time of death Yes
Sex Yes
Ethnicity Yes
Education Yes
Physical examinations
Any physical examination performed? Yes
Blood pressure Data available
Assessed before onset of dementia
Weight Data available
Assessed before onset of dementia
Height Data available
Assessed before onset of dementia
Heart Rate Data available
Assessed before onset of dementia
Anthropometry Data available
Assessed before onset of dementia
ECG Data available
Assessed before onset of dementia
Spirometry Data available
Assessed before onset of dementia
Specify any others Standing height, sitting height, hip circumference, waist circumference, bio-impedance, arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity.
Medical conditions
Cardiovascular disease data Yes: Flagged from linkage.
Myocardial infarction Data available
Hypertension Data available
Systolic/diastolic BP Data available
Hypotension Data available
Hypercholesterolemia Yes
Virus testing No data available
Olfactory sensitivity No
Medication use Yes
Cancer Data available
Diabetic Status Data available

Cognitive Outcomes

Variable Response
Any domain-specific cognitive test performed? Yes
Attention Data available
Data available
List all tests: Attention is accessed using a Stroop test where words describing colours are presented for selection according to whether or not the font colour matches the semantic meaning. There are two conditions each with 20 stimuli.
Computerised
Reaction time Data available
Data available
List all tests: Processing speed is accessed using a two choices reaction time task where participants respond to one of two targets on the computer screen. After two practice trials, 60 stimuli are presented.
Computerised
Associative learning Data available
Data available
List all tests: For episodic memory, a Paired Associates learning test is done where seven stimuli are presented in series in boxes at different locations presented peripherally on the screen. The stimuli are then hidden. Each stimulus is then presented centrally and the box in which it was initially presented must be identified.
Computerised
Vigilance Data available
Data available
List all tests: For working memory, a digit span test is carried out where an increasing number of digits are presented and have to be recalled. Beginning with one digit, a further digit is added with each trial until the participant gives an incorrect response.
Computerised
Working memory Data available
Data available
List all tests: See Vigilance above: For working memory, a digit span test is carried out where an increasing number of digits are presented and have to be recalled. Beginning with one digit, a further digit is added with each trial until the participant gives an incorrect response.
Computerised
Other cognitive tasks "Executive function, the mental capacity to control and purposefully apply one's own mental skills, is assessed by a Fluid IQ test. A verbal and numeric reasoning test is undertaken that presents twelve items that gradually increase in difficulty."
IQ data available? Yes
IQ other (list) Fluid IQ test: A verbal and numeric reasoning test is undertaken that presents twelve items that gradually increase in difficulty.
Cognitive background? Yes
Standard dementia global cognition scales? No
MMSE No
MoCA No
ADAS-Cog No
Addenbrooke's Cognitive Exam No
3MS No
GPCOG No

Non-Cognitive Clinical Outcomes

Variable Response
Dementia diagnosis
Alzheimer's dementia No
Lewy Body Disease No
Huntingtons Disease No
Parkinsons Disease Yes
Frontotemporal dementia No
Vascular dementia No
MCI No
Subjective complaint No
Dementia diagnosis (Other comments) No
Functional rating scales
Any information on dementia rating collected? No
ADCS-ADL No
ADCS-ADL-MCI No
Blessed Dementia Scale No
Clinical dementia rating scale (CDR) No
Complex Activities of Daily Living No
Dependence Scale No
Functional Assessment Questionniare (FAQ) No
FAST No
Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) No
Katz ADL No
Lawton IADL No
PDQ39 (PD specific) No
UPDRS (PD specific) No
Hoehn and Yahr (PD specific) No
Schwab and England (PD specific) No
UHDRS (HD specific) No
Any information on subjective complaints collected? No
Any neuropsychiatric rating scale administered? Yes
Aggression Scale No
Beck Depression Inventory No
Behave-AD No
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) No
Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale No
Cornell depression Scale No
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) No
Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) No
Montgomery-Asberg depression scale (MADRS) No
NPI No
NPI-Q No
Speilberger State Anxiety Scale No
Specify any other scales Yes
Any Quality of Life Data Colllected? Yes
Quality of Life-Alzheimers Disease (QOL-AD) No
Dementia Quality of Life Instrument (DEMQOL) No
Discomfort Scale for Dementia of Alzheimers Type (DS-DAT) No
Progressive Deterioration Scale (PDS) No
Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia Scale (QUALID) No
Bedfords Alzheimers Nursing Severity Scale(BANS-S) No
EQ-5DVAS No
Short Form (SF) 36 No
Health Utilities Index 1, 2 or 3 No
Specify any other quality of life scales Job strain (selected items from the Karasek Job content Questionnaire)
Any information on Caregivers and Caregiving Collected? No
Health service utilisation
Any Health Resource Utilisation Collected ? Yes
Hospital utilisation Yes
Prescription Medicine Cost No
Over the Counter Drug Costs No
Nursing Home Costs No
Costs of Visits to Specialists (out-patient) No
Costs of Home-Care No
Admission to nursing home No
Admission to home care No
Day care at nursing home No
Day care at home for elderly No
Home care- domestic No
Home care- personal care No
Home care- nursing No
Physical therapist No
Care of community mental health team No
Permanent stay at nursing home No
Informal ADL care No
Informal iADL care No
Days of work absence if having a paid job No
Other neurological or psychiatric measurements? Yes
Any stroke data? Yes
Stroke type No
Transient Ischemic Attack Yes
Carotid plaques No
Any head trauma data? No
Loss of consciousness No
Sports, soccer and boxing No
Head trauma severity No
BISQ or equivalent No
EEG No
Psychiatric evaluations Yes
CESD scale (depression) No
Personality evaluation No
Apathy evaluation No
Anxiety measure Yes
Resilience evaluation Yes

Imaging

Variable Response
Structural T1 Not acquired
Not acquired
Fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) Not acquired
Not acquired
Diffusion imaging (DTI/DWI) Not acquired
Not acquired
f-MRI (task) Not acquired
Not acquired
f-MRI (rest) Not acquired
Not acquired
PET Not acquired
Not acquired
SPECT Not acquired
Not acquired
MEG Not acquired
Not acquired
In vivo Spectroscopy Not acquired
Not acquired

Genetics

Variable Response
Overview
N Exome Chip subjects Controls N
Controls N: First batch of samples was completed in April 2013. For this project, 2016 Human DNA samples were processed using the Illumina Infinium HumanExome-12v1-1 BeadChip Arrays and following the Infinium HD Assay Ultra protocol. Analysis of the second batch of samples was completed in December 2014. For this project, 14976 Human DNA samples were processed, in 52 batches of 288 samples. Samples were processed with Illumina Infinium HumanCoreExome-12v1-1 BeadChip Arrays following the Infinium HD Assay Ultra protocol.
ExomeChip versions Illumina Infinium Human Exome 12: Illumina Infinium HumanExome-12v1-1 BeadChip Arrays. Analysis of the second batch of samples was completed in December 2014. For this project, 14976 Human DNA samples were processed, in 52 batches of 288 samples. Samples were processed with Illumina Infinium HumanCoreExome-12v1-1 BeadChip Arrays following the Infinium HD Assay Ultra protocol.
Exome/Genome sequencing broad platform categories Illumina
N Whole genome sequenced No
Gene screening

Biological samples

Variable Response
Blood collected Yes
Plasma Yes
Comments: See http://www.police-health.org.uk/biological-samples and http://www.police-health.org.uk/blood-biochemistry-data
Serum Yes
Comments: See http://www.police-health.org.uk/biological-samples and http://www.police-health.org.uk/blood-biochemistry-data
RNA Yes
Comments: See http://www.police-health.org.uk/biological-samples and http://www.police-health.org.uk/blood-biochemistry-data
DNA Yes
Comments: See http://www.police-health.org.uk/biological-samples and http://www.police-health.org.uk/blood-biochemistry-data
Abeta 1-40 No
Abeta 1-42 No
Abeta x-40 No
Abeta x-42 No
Blood Metabolic Analytes
CRP (c-reactive protein) Yes
Comments: See http://www.police-health.org.uk/biological-samples and http://www.police-health.org.uk/blood-biochemistry-data
eGFR (estimated Glomular Filtration Rate) No
Glucose Yes
Comments: See http://www.police-health.org.uk/biological-samples and http://www.police-health.org.uk/blood-biochemistry-data
HbA1c Yes
Comments: See http://www.police-health.org.uk/biological-samples and http://www.police-health.org.uk/blood-biochemistry-data
Lipids Yes
Comments: HDL, total cholesterol, apoA and apoB.
Liver Function Tests Yes
Comments: In a subsample.
Serum creatinine Yes
Comments: See http://www.police-health.org.uk/biological-samples and http://www.police-health.org.uk/blood-biochemistry-data
Homocysteine No
Folate No
Other blood samples Yes
Are laboratory protocols and storage information available for bloods Yes
Urine collection
Urine Yes
Autopsy data
Autopsy No
Measurements already performed No
Saliva
Saliva collected No
Cortisol No
Are laboratory protocols and saliva storage information available? No
CSF
CSF collected No
Are CSF laboratory protocols and storage information available? No
mtDNA abnormalities No

Brain donation

Variable Response
Is brain donation part of the existing protocol? No
Are information sheets made available to representative or consultees? No
Are retrospective interviews carried out after the participant's death? No
Is there a procedure for declining donation/failed recruitment/project termination? No
Has an actuarial analysis been completed? No

Lifestyle

Variable Response
Smoking Yes
Current smoking Data available
Alcohol Data available
Drugs of abuse assessment
Obesity and associated risk factors
BMI Data available
Hip/waist circumference Data available
Fat percentage Data available
Dyslipidemia Data available
Blood lipids Data available: HDL, total cholesterol, apoA and apoB.
Other measurements of activity Short International physical activity questionnaire (IPAC).
Diet Yes
Food questionnaires Data available
Comments: 10 items Food Frequency questionnaire
Other dietary items Yes
Employment status
Employment status Data available
Living situation
Living situation Data available
Socioeconomic status
Socioeconomic status measures Data available
Sleep assessment
Questionnaires Data available
Comments: Fatigue (Short Checklist Individual Strength)
Other sleep recording (specify) Shift work recorded as well as Hours of Sleep.

Ethics and Engagement

Variable Response
Participant engagement
Ethics
Does the cohort include participants who lack capacity? No
Is there a process in place for participants who lose capacity? No
Do participants provide contact information for a person to act as a potential consultee? No
Disclosure
Do procedures exist for the disclosure of incidental findings? Yes
What kinds of finding do these relate to? (imaging, genotyping, etc) Clinical and biological data
Who is responsible for disclosing incidental findings? A letter sent directly to them from the study team.
Do procedures exist for the disclosure of clinically relevant information identified as a direct focus of the study? (e.g. a diagnosis of dementia) No
Recruitment
How was the cohort recruited (NHS or not, primary or secondary care)? Through the police force
Does the study involve ongoing connections with participants' own doctors (e.g. GPs)? Yes
Consent and recontact
Is there consent for recontact? Yes

Data Management

Variable Response
Consent for linkage to routine data
Which parts of the UK are represented by participants in your cohort? England
England
Scotland
Wales